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Glossary Of Terms

                                    

Glossary Of Terms:

Air Void

Internal spaces in a compacted mix surrounded by asphalt-coated particles, expressed as a percentage by volume of the total compacted mix.

Asphalt
(asphalt cement):

A dark brown to black cementitious material in which the predominating constituents are bitumen’s, which occur in nature or are obtained in petroleum processing. Asphalt is a constituent in varying proportions of most crude petroleum and used for paving, roofing, industrial and other special purposes.

Alligator Cracks

Interconnected cracks forming a series of small blocks resembling an alligator's skin or chicken-wire, and caused by excessive deflection of the surface over unstable sub grade or lower courses of the pavement.

Asphalt Emulsion

An emulsion of asphalt binder and water that contains a small amount of an emulsifying agent. Emulsified asphalt droplets may be of either the anionic (negative charge), cationic (positive charge) or nonionic (neutral).

Asphalt Emulsion Slurry Seal

A mixture of slow-setting emulsified asphalt, fine aggregate and mineral filler with a slurry consistency

Asphalt Leveling Course

A course of hot mix asphalt of variable thickness used to eliminate irregularities in the contour of an existing surface prior to placing the subsequent course.

Asphalt Pavements

Pavements consisting of a surface course of asphalt concrete over supporting courses such as asphalt concrete bases crushed stone, slag, gravel, Portland Cement Concrete (PCC), brick, or block pavement.

Asphalt Tack Coat

A relatively thin application of asphalt binder applied to an existing asphalt concrete or PCC surface at a prescribed rate. Asphalt emulsion diluted with water is the preferred type. It is used to form a bond between an existing surface and the overlying course.

Base Course

The layer in the pavement system immediately below the binder and surface courses. It usually consists of crushed stone, although it may consist of crushed slag or other stabilized or unsterilized material.

Binder Course

The hot mix asphalt course immediately below the surface course, generally consisting of larger aggregates and less asphalt (by weight) than the surface.

Coal Tar

A dark brown to black cementitious material produced by the destructive distillation of bituminous coal.

Coarse Aggregate

Aggregate retained on the 2.36 mm (No. 8) sieve.

Coarse-Graded Aggregate

One having a continuous grading in sizes of particles from coarse through fine with a predominance of coarse sizes

Compaction

The act of compressing a given volume of material into a smaller volume.

Crack

An approximately vertical random cleavage of the pavement caused by traffic loading, thermal stresses and/or aging of the binder.

Disintegration

The breaking up of a pavement into small, loose fragments caused by traffic or weathering (e.g. raveling).

Durability

The property of an asphalt pavement that represents its ability to resist disintegration by weathering and traffic.

Effective Thickness

The ratio of the thickness of an existing pavement material compared to the equivalent thickness of a new HMA layer.

Fatigue Resistance

The ability of asphalt pavement to resist crack initiation caused by repeated flexing.

Fine Aggregate
Flexibility

Aggregate passing the 2.36 mm (No. 8) sieve.
The ability of an asphalt pavement structure to conform to settlement of the foundation. Generally, flexibility of the asphalt paving mixture is enhanced by high asphalt content.

Fog Seal

A light application of diluted asphalt emulsion. It is used to renew old asphalt surfaces, seal small cracks and surface voids, and inhibit raveling.

Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement

The term FULL-DEPTH (registered by the Asphalt Institute with the U.S. Patent Office) certifies that the pavement is one in which asphalt mixtures are employed for all courses above the sub grade or improved sub grade. A Full-Depth asphalt pavement is placed directly on the prepared sub grade.

Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

High quality thoroughly controlled hot mixture of asphalt binder (cement) and well-graded, high quality aggregate, which can be compacted into a uniform dense mass.

Impermeability

The resistance an asphalt pavement has to the passage of air and water into or through the pavement.

Micro-Surfacing

A mixture of polymer modified asphalt emulsion crushed dense graded aggregate, mineral filler, additives and water. It provides a thin resurfacing of 10 to 20 mm (3/8 to 3/4 inch) to the pavement.

Milling Machine

A self-propelled unit having a cutting head equipped with carbide-tipped tools for the pulverization and removal of layers of asphalt materials from pavements.

Pneumatic-Tire Roller

A compactor with a number of tires spaced so their tracks overlap delivering a kneading type of compaction.

Polymer-Modified Asphalt (PMA) Binder

Conventional asphalt cement to which one or more polymer compounds have been added to improve resistance to deformation at high pavement temperatures and often cracking resistance at low temperatures.

Pumping

Slab deflection under passing loads sometimes resulting in the discharge of water and sub grade soils along joints, cracks and pavement edges.

Raveling

The progressive separation of aggregate particles in a pavement from the surface downward or from the edges inward.

Recycled Asphalt Mix

A mixture produced after processing existing asphalt pavement materials. The recycled mix may be produced by hot or cold mixing at a plant, or by processing the materials cold and in-place.

Reflection Cracks

Cracks in asphalt overlays (usually over deteriorated PCC pavements) that reflect the crack pattern in the pavement structure below it.

Seal Coat

A thin surface treatment used to improve the surface texture and protect an asphalt surface. The main types of seal coats are fog seals, sand seals, slurry seals, micro-surfacing, cape seals, sandwich seals and chip seals.

Slurry Seal

A mixture of emulsified asphalt, well-graded fine aggregate, mineral filler or other additives, and water. A slurry seal will fill minor cracks, restore a uniform surface texture, and restore friction values.

Soil/Cement Base

A hardened material formed by curing a mechanically mixed and compacted mixture of pulverized soil, portland cement and water used as a layer in a pavement system to reinforce and protect the sub grade or sub base.

Steel-Wheel Vibratory Rollers

A compactor having single or double cylindrical steel rolls that apply compactive effort with weight and vibration. The amount of compactive force is adjusted by changing the frequency and amplitude of vibration.

Structural Overlay

A HMA overlay constructed for the purpose of increasing the structural value and ride quality of the pavement system.

Subgrade

The soil prepared to support a pavement structure or a pavement system. It is the foundation of the pavement structure.

Superpave™

Short for "Superior Performing Asphalt Pavement" a performance-based system for selecting and specifying asphalt binders and for designing asphalt mixtures.

Workability

The ease with which paving mixtures may be placed and compacted.



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